Developping electrodes and materials choice: Making an effective electrode
Effective electrodes are the key to successful development of this system. The general prerequisites for an electrode will be that they can absorb quickly ions with a high density. The electrode should have a low electric resistance and be resistant to chemical and biological fouling. It is important to choose the right materials that support the functions mentioned above, while materials should preferably be renewable, as this improves the overall sustainability of the system. A systematic approach will be followed in choosing the right materials, based on the results of the process modeling, and experimentally by using a tunable material, based on the use of phenolic resins. After identification of the required properties, there will be attention to materials that can be produced easily in bulk quantities. Because of the use of ion exchange materials, aspects like coating adherence, selectivity and resistance will be of prime importance.
Capacitive carbon particles will be obtained by chemical and physical modification of porous carbon materials. Experiences in carbon material treatment, used typically in preparation of high performance carbon capacitors will be investigated. These modifications will be tuned towards the novel application in sea and fresh water. The coating process will be conducted by sorption of polymers from solution and crosslinking the deposited layer. The second method to be explored is phase inversion that allows to obtain solid polymer film on the surface of carbon material. The deposited polymer solution will be exposed to a precipitant in vapor or in the liquid phase and solid coating will be formed. The methods for particle encapsulation will be investigated in the project. Special attention will be paid to the membrane emulsification procedure because it allows us to obtain spherical particles with controlled dimension and size distribution.